WHAT THESE TERROR GROUPS ARE AFTER
An objective shared by these terror outfits is to ‘liberate’ J&K and merge it with Pakistan. While some were founded to fight Soviet presence in Afghanistan, they eventually turned their attention to J&K under the guidance of Pakistan’s ISI. ISI has reportedly not only helped found some groups, but it also continues to finance their activities, train fighters and provide logistical support.
HOW PAKISTAN BECAME A HOTBED FOR TERRORISTS
HuJI (Harkat-ul-Jihadi al-Islam)
It wasfounded in Pakistan in 1984 and received support from ISI to destabilise J&K. In 2004, it was designated a terrorist organisation by India. The group’s most active unit operated in Bangladesh.
Present status: Banned by US and India.
(HuM leader Faziur Rehman Khalil, active in Pakistani politics)
In 1985, HuM splintered off from HuJ. In 2003, it briefly changed its name to Jamiat-ul-Ansar, likely to evade authorities. In 2014
, Ansarul-Ummah was recognised by the US as front for HuM. A year later, it was banned by India.
Present status: Banned by Pakistan, Canada, Australia, UK, US and UN.
HuA ( Harkat-ul-Ansar )
HuA was created as a merger of HuJI and HuM in 1993. During 1993-94, several leaders, including Masood Azhar, were arrested. Four years later, HuA split after it was banned by US and ceased to exist. However, HuJI and HuM continue to operate independently.
(JeM leader Masood Azhar)
, Azhar’s released from jail in the Indian Airlines hostage swap and created JeM. Many HuM members left to join JeM. A year later, JeM renamed itself Tehrik-ul-Furqan and shifted it funds to avoid US proscription. In the same year, India, UN and US designated JeM a terrorist organisation.
Present status: Banned by India, Pakistan, US and UN.
HM ( Hizbul Mujahideen)
(HM leader Syed Salahuddin )
HM was created as the militant wing of the Islamist organisation Jama‘ate-Islami reportedly under the guidance of ISI in 1989. In 1994, the United Jihad Council, an anti-India coalition of terrorist groups with the common goal of ‘liberating’ J&K, created with Syed Salahuddin as its leader. It has at least 13 members including LeT, HuM and al-Badr.
Al-Badr, initially operated under the HM banner until ISI reportedly encouraged it to run independently in 1998. Recently, however, JeM and al-Badr have reportedly drawn closer and begun to merge. In 2002
, India designated Hizbul Mijahideen a terrorist organisation. But during July- Sept 2016
, the valley descends into months of unrest with anti-government protests when popular Hizb commander Burhan Wani was killed by security forces. At least 90 civilians killed and hundreds injured.
Present status: Banned by India.
LeT ( Lashkar-e-Taiba)
( LeT leader Hafiz Saeed)
LeT was founded as the military wing of Islamist organisation Markazad-Dawa-wal-Irshad in 1990. It reportedly, with support from ISI, turned its attention to the growing insurgency in J&K. In 2001, US designated it a terrorist organisation and a year later Pakistan too followed .
In 2002, Jama‘at-ud-Dawa, the front organisation of LeT was formed. It provided charitable services targeting impoverished communities, fostering support for LeT among Pakistanis.
Present status: Banned by India, Pakistan, US and UN
THE MAJOR STRIKES CARRIED OUT BY THESE GROUPS IN INDIA
Dec 24, 1999 | HuM hijacks Indian Airlines flight carrying 176 passengers from Kathmandu and flies it to Afghanistan. The group secures the release of three militants, including Masood Azhar.
April 19, 2000 | JeM carries out the first suicide car bombing in India outside an Army building near Srinagar.
Dec 13, 2001 | Armed JeM terrorists attack the Parliament in Delhi, killing 14 and injuring more than 20.
Oct 29, 2005 | Three coordinated bombings in Delhi markets by LeT, killing 63 and wounded at least 200.
July 11, 2006 | LeT detonates seven pressure cooker bombs on Mumbai commuter trains, killing 180 and injuring 800.
Nov 26, 2008 | LeT conducted a coordinated attack in Mumbai, targeting a hotel, a popular restaurant and a Jewish centre. At least 170 killed and 300 wounded.
Source : https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/pakistan/china-block-move-to-ban-masood-azhar-a-look-at-pakistans-network-of-terror/articleshow/68418602.cms928